Glossary – I
Abbreviation for integrated circuit. Integral "solid-state" units that include transistors, resistors, semiconductor diodes, and often capacitors, all of which are formed simultaneously during fabrication.
International Electrotechnical Commission. An international standards organization.
Intermodulation distortion. Signals in output caused by interaction of two or more input signals but not harmonically related to them. Expressed as a percentage of the total signal output.
An undesired change in the apparent location of a recorded sound source.
That property of an element, or a circuit, which restricts the flow of an alternating current. Impedance is the complex sum of resistance and reactance. Measured in ohms.
Generally, a circuit with an impedance of several thousand ohms or more.
Generally, a circuit with an impedance of 600 ohms or less.
Two complex waveforms that are most of the time of opposite polarity.
The magnitude of the capability of an element, or a circuit, to store magnetic energy when carrying a current. Measured in Henrys. The resistance of a coil of wire to rapidly fluctuating ac currents. The field built up by the current resists any change in the rate of flow of the current; and this resistance increases with frequency.
An electronic component that opposes a change in current.
The acoustical equivalent of inductance.
The process of forming a disc by injecting a liquefied plastic material into a die cavity.
A change in signal level, as a result of inserting an electronic component (amplifier, signal processing device, pad, etc.) in a line.
Substance or body that offers a very high resistance to the flow of an electric current and may therefore be used to separate two conductors from each other.
An audio preamplifier and power amplifier housed in a single cabinet.
An integrated receiver contains an FM/AM tuner, preamplifier, and power amplifier in the same cabinet.
Of a sound, the objective strength of the sound expressed in terms of the rms pressure in dynes per square centimeter (or bars) or in Newtons per square meter or Pascals, or in terms of the power in Watts per square meter. The minimum audible difference in intensity is about 3 dB. A tenfold increase in intensity (power) = 10 dB. Doubling the audible intensity is equivalent to a rise of 3 dB.
A measure of acdustic power per unit area. At the threshold of hearing, the acoustic intensity is 0.000000000001 watts/m2
The proper inter-connection of two networks, components, or systems.
Broken shielding, missing ground wire, corrosion, and fraying at the connector cable to the microphone can cause electrostatic induction yielding a stray magnetic field or voltage into the recording chain. The interference can be at an audio frequency or high frequency. All inputs must be shielded. Shielded transformers attenuate passage of interference. Symmetrical inputs in which the middle point is grounded and external filters protect against induction leaks. Magnetic induction is caused by use of microphones near motors, transformers, twisted power cables, or other elements like auto ignitions, refrigerators, lighting grids. This source of noise tends to record as low frequency hum.
A constituent of non-linearity distortion consisting of the occurrence, in the response to co-existent sinusoidal excitations, of sinusoidal components (intermodulation products) whose frequencies are sums or differences of the excitation frequencies or of integral multiples of these frequencies. Intermodulation distortion manifests as a type of amplitude change in which sum and difference tones (harmonics of the original signal) are present in the recorded signal.
Placing adopted by the performers in a musical combination in order to secure a satisfactory relationship between the sounds produced by each of them, as heard in the studio or other place of performance.
International Organization for Standardization
The acoustic (or electrical) separation of one sound source from another.
A small room, used to acoustically separate a soloist from the rest of the musical group being recorded at the same time.
A registered trade name of the 3M Company, describing their closed loop tape path. See Closed Loop Tape Path.
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"I wanted to thank you for the wonderful work that you did on the 5 home-recorded 78 records that I sent you. These were made by my Grandfather in the late 1940's and 1950's. No one in the family had heard them in almost 50 years. They varied in what shape they were in, and we really thought that they would not be playable after so many years. We were all so happy to hear them, and the restoration work that you did made them sound fantastic! We had them done as a surprise for my Mother, who will be 80 this year. You can just imagine how thrilled she was to hear her Mother and Father's speaking voices and her Father's singing voice after so many years. We are definitely a happy customer. Thank you, very much, for your effort!"