Glossary – I
Abbreviation for integrated circuit. Integral "solid-state" units that include transistors, resistors, semiconductor diodes, and often capacitors, all of which are formed simultaneously during fabrication.
International Electrotechnical Commission. An international standards organization.
Intermodulation distortion. Signals in output caused by interaction of two or more input signals but not harmonically related to them. Expressed as a percentage of the total signal output.
An undesired change in the apparent location of a recorded sound source.
That property of an element, or a circuit, which restricts the flow of an alternating current. Impedance is the complex sum of resistance and reactance. Measured in ohms.
Generally, a circuit with an impedance of several thousand ohms or more.
Generally, a circuit with an impedance of 600 ohms or less.
Two complex waveforms that are most of the time of opposite polarity.
The magnitude of the capability of an element, or a circuit, to store magnetic energy when carrying a current. Measured in Henrys. The resistance of a coil of wire to rapidly fluctuating ac currents. The field built up by the current resists any change in the rate of flow of the current; and this resistance increases with frequency.
An electronic component that opposes a change in current.
The acoustical equivalent of inductance.
The process of forming a disc by injecting a liquefied plastic material into a die cavity.
A change in signal level, as a result of inserting an electronic component (amplifier, signal processing device, pad, etc.) in a line.
Substance or body that offers a very high resistance to the flow of an electric current and may therefore be used to separate two conductors from each other.
An audio preamplifier and power amplifier housed in a single cabinet.
An integrated receiver contains an FM/AM tuner, preamplifier, and power amplifier in the same cabinet.
Of a sound, the objective strength of the sound expressed in terms of the rms pressure in dynes per square centimeter (or bars) or in Newtons per square meter or Pascals, or in terms of the power in Watts per square meter. The minimum audible difference in intensity is about 3 dB. A tenfold increase in intensity (power) = 10 dB. Doubling the audible intensity is equivalent to a rise of 3 dB.
A measure of acdustic power per unit area. At the threshold of hearing, the acoustic intensity is 0.000000000001 watts/m2
The proper inter-connection of two networks, components, or systems.
Broken shielding, missing ground wire, corrosion, and fraying at the connector cable to the microphone can cause electrostatic induction yielding a stray magnetic field or voltage into the recording chain. The interference can be at an audio frequency or high frequency. All inputs must be shielded. Shielded transformers attenuate passage of interference. Symmetrical inputs in which the middle point is grounded and external filters protect against induction leaks. Magnetic induction is caused by use of microphones near motors, transformers, twisted power cables, or other elements like auto ignitions, refrigerators, lighting grids. This source of noise tends to record as low frequency hum.
A constituent of non-linearity distortion consisting of the occurrence, in the response to co-existent sinusoidal excitations, of sinusoidal components (intermodulation products) whose frequencies are sums or differences of the excitation frequencies or of integral multiples of these frequencies. Intermodulation distortion manifests as a type of amplitude change in which sum and difference tones (harmonics of the original signal) are present in the recorded signal.
Placing adopted by the performers in a musical combination in order to secure a satisfactory relationship between the sounds produced by each of them, as heard in the studio or other place of performance.
International Organization for Standardization
The acoustic (or electrical) separation of one sound source from another.
A small room, used to acoustically separate a soloist from the rest of the musical group being recorded at the same time.
A registered trade name of the 3M Company, describing their closed loop tape path. See Closed Loop Tape Path.
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"I have recently received the CD transfer order I had submitted and thought I would pass along my comments. I admit that I had no idea what to expect with regards to the quality of the end product. My assumption was that you would perform some noise reduction and do what you could to make other sonic improvements dictated by the limits of the source material. Since these albums were originally recorded in the mid-sixties, I just hoped for the best. However, what I received far exceeded my expectations. I genuinely could not believe my ears. The improvements were, to say the least, spectacular. I have been listening to them repeatedly this week and I still can't believe these were transferred from conventional vinyl LP's. I don't recall the albums sounding this good even when they were new. The work you did on the Peter Nero & the Boston Pops album was incredible. It sounds as good as any CD I have that was created from the original master tapes. I also appreciated the fact that you kept the "dead-air time" between tracks to a minimum. This was something I used to do when I made tape recordings of my own. I never liked all that wasted time. You are to be commended for doing a truly superb job. Even the cover artwork, right down to the label on the disc itself shows a high degree of commitment to quality. I could not be more satisfied with the results. I certainly will use your services again. I have a number of LP's in my collection that most likely will not be issued on CD's. Now that I know I can have them "professionally done", I will not hesitate to do so. Please convey my appreciation to all those who were involved in the processing of my order. Yours is a first class company. Sincerely; "