The signal fed to the right-hand loudspeaker of a stereo.
A thin coating applied to the back of a magnetic recording tape, generally to reduce both slippage and the build-up of static charges.
A speaker enclosure arrangement in which the sound from the front of the cone feeds directly into the room, while the sound from the rear feeds into the room via a folded horn.
A form of horn loading particularly applicable to low-frequency speakers; the rear radiating surface of the speaker feeds the horn and the front part of the speaker is directly exposed to the room.
The fixed rear element in the capacitor/diaphragm of a condenser (capacitor) microphone.
The production of a composite recording by combining live sound with a previously recorded backing track.
Noise inherent in any electronic system.
Accompanrment, as when a group of vocalists record a "backing track" to which the soloist listens on headphones when recording.
Prerecording of the accompaniment to a singer who then listens through headphones to a replay as he /she performs. The two signals are mixed to give the final recording.
Preliminary recording is done by the same performer and used as the accompaniment.
1. General expression for wall, board or enclosure. 2. Any partition, designed to be an acoustic obstruction to the passage of sound waves. 3. A partition or enclosure in a speaker cabinet that increases the length of the air path from the front to the rear radiating surfaces of the speaker. The purpose of the baffle is primarily to separate the front and back radiations from the cone or diaphragm which would otherwise cancel each other.
A speaker cabinet that is completely open at the rear. So-called because it is formed by folding over the sides of an open baffle. See Horn, Folded.
Theoretically, a baffle so large that sounds originating on either side of it never reach the opposite side. A practical example would be a speaker mounted in an opening in a wall.
Simply a flat partition, of less than infinite dimension, in which a hole has been cut for mounting a speaker.
1. The relative level of two or more instruments, signal paths, or recorded tracks. 2. Placing of artists, speakers or other sources of sound in relation to a microphone or microphones, or vice versa ("balance test").
Cable in which the twin signal wires are both isolated from earth and are suitably terminated so as to be at equal potential but opposite polarity.
Adjusting the relative levels of instruments or recorded tracks.
A property of a meter movement, referring to its ability to precisely respond to the envelope of the signal being measured.
Portion of the recorded surface on a disc separated by a marker space or scroll.
The arithmetic difference between the cut-off frequencies or - 3 dB points in a response curve, expressed in octaves or as a frequency difference in Hertz.
In magnetic recording tape, the plastic or other film upon which the magnetic oxide is coated.
In multi-track recording, those tracks that are recorded first. In general, the rhythm tracks (guitars, bass, drums, et al).
A portion of the audio spectrum with lower frequencies. Many musical instruments that are capable of playing low notes use the "bass" prefix.
An adjustment of the amplitude-frequency response of an audio system or component to accentuate the lower audio frequencies.
An emphasis of the low-frequency response of an audio amplifier at low volume levels to compensate for the lowered sensitivity of the ear to weak low frequency sounds.
How clearly a speaker reproduces deep bass tones.
The low frequency in Hz at which the total sound power of a loudspeaker rolls off to become half as loud as in the rest of the tonal spectrum.
A speaker cabinet enclosure in which a portion of the radiation from the rear of the cone is channeled to reinforce the bass tones. A loudspeaker enclosure, with an open port cut into the front baffle. Also called a vented enclosure.
The extent to which a speaker or audio amplifier processes low audio frequencies.
A term applied to sound reproduction in which the low-frequency tones are overemphasized.
A successive rising and falling of a wave envelope due to alternate reinforcements and cancellations of two or more component frequencies.
The process of separating the audio bandwidth in two, with a separate amplifier for low and high frequencies.
A microphone that is sensitive to front- and rear-originating sounds, and relatively insensitive to side-originating sounds. Also called a Figure-8 microphone, after the shape of its polar pattern.
An electrical signal of relatively high frequency applied to magnetic tape during the recording process, along with the audio signal, to linearize the transfer characteristic of magnetic recording tape. The bias frequency is generally in the range of 70 to 120 kHz (HF bias).
An audio frequency signal that may be created if two slightly different bias frequencies are combined. The audio frequency is the arithmetic difference between the bias frequencies.
The frequency of the applied bias signal. Generally, about 150,000 to 180,000 Hz.
A fixed frequency oscillator built into the tape recorder to supply the bias current.
Low-pass filter in tape replay circuit designed to attenuate any high frequency bias present, thus preventing it from overloading the record or playback amplifiers in a tape recorder.
A type of symmetrical variable area sound track recognizable by the fact that in the print the central axis and surrounding modulated area are transparent, whereas as in the duplex type they are opaque.
A type of sound recording and reproduction. Two microphones, each representing one ear and spaced about 6 in. apart, are used to pick up the sound energy to be recorded on separate tape channels. Playback is accomplished through a two channel amplifier (or separate amplifiers) or through special headphones wired for binaural listening.
A recording technique using two omnidirectional microphones; one each on either side of an acoustic baffle designed to simulate the characteristics of a listener's head. For optimum results, the recording must be monitored over headphones.
The medium in which magnetic particles are suspended to form the oxide coating in magnetic recording tape.
Contraction of the words "binary digit" (a 1 or a 0). A number of bits assembled together is called a "byte".
The input impedance of a transducer when its output is connected to a load of infinite impedance.
Resistance of an audio-frequency transducer when its moving elements are restrained so that they cannot move.
Any two microphones, arranged for a stereophonic pickup, according to the methods developed by Alan Dower Blumlein c. 1930.
A mobile carrier for a microphone which includes a movable arm from which the microphone is suspended.
The technique of transferring several previously recorded tracks to a single unused track on the same tape. The previously recorded tracks may then be erased and re-used.
Enter answer hereA jack arranged to break the normal circuit when a plug is inserted.
An audible rising and falling of background noise that may become objectionable when using a compressor. Also called pumping.
Enter answer here-- The pattern formed by the spread of reflections from a modulated groove when a parallel beam of light is caused to fall normal to, the surface of one or the other wall, and when the groove is viewed from the direction of the light source. It is used as a measure of the maximum modulation of either wall of the groove in the calibration of the performance of recorders, and for the measurement of levels on test records.
A device which magnetically aligns all of the iron oxide molecules on a magnetic tape or film, thus eliminating any "sound" on them. A strong electro-magnet, used to erase an entire reel of tape at once. A degausser.
Colloquial term for making an interim reduction of, say, 4 tracks to 2 to make room for more material on a multitrack tape (also called "jump").
The portion of the cutting stylus directly behind the cutting edge which smoothes the groove.
Proprietary noise reduction system.
A common signal line, or junction, at which the outputs of several signal paths may be combined.
Common earth or other contact wire.
A multi-position switch, which permits a signal path to be routed to one or more buses.
Type of multitrack head with a flared guard band to give improved crosstalk performance.