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Stylus mass, effective

This is a sum of the actual mass of the stylus, the cantilever and that of the cartridge’s moving parts divided by the leverage ratio of the cantilever. Approximate proportions of each can be: 10%, 60%, and 30% respectively. This mass must be accelerated by the record groove to values up to 1000 g at which the vinyl can flow as liquid. Permanent groove deformation is proportional to mass and inversely proportional to stylus contact area. The stylus resonance which should be above the cartridge frequency range, is governed by its mass reacting with the groove elasticity. The lower the mass the higher the resonance. Most quality cartridges have a lower stylus mass than 0.5 mg, but under O. 15 mg has been achieved.