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Stylus, vertical tracking error

In following the vertical groove modulations the stylus describes an arc about a fulcrum formed by the anchored end of the cantilever. To clear the disc surface the fulcrum must be raised above it, hence the arc is tilted forward. This is known as the tracking angle, and should correspond with the angle of inclination of the recording cutter, termed the slant angle. Deviations from the now standard 20 degree recorded slant-angle are common due to manufacturing tolerances of +5% and lacquer springback (the partial restoration of the disc lacquer contour after the cutter has passed, due to its elasticity). Cartridge tracking angles are not always accurate. The result is vertical tracking error which produces mainly second harmonic and intermodulation distortion.